Новости
Автономная канализация
Вы стоите дом и у вас нет центральной канализации? Тогда автономная канализация - это отличное решение для вас. Что собой представляет септик? Есть ёмкость, где все отходы перерабатывающийся специальными

Лечение алкоголизма в Черкассах
психиатр в домашних условиях – это возможно при наличии сильного желания, и в том случае, если зависимость ещё не приобрела запущенную форму. В помощь множество аптечных препаратов и рецепты из народной

Лечение среднего кариеса в Москве
Установлено, что первые попытки лечения кариеса могли предприниматься уже около 8000 лет назад, о чем красноречиво говорят обнаруженные черепа людей, у которых отдельные зубы были просверлены явно ручным

Тендеры россии официальный сайт
Индустрия развлечений - это стремительно развивающаяся отрасль. По предварительным прогнозам рынок индустрии развлечений и средств массовой информации за 5 лет (c 2005 по 2010 год) увеличился на 38%.

Электронные площадки тендеры
Правильно оформленные документы – половина победы Итак, вы имеете общее представление о тендерах. Знаете, какими законами регламентируется их проведение. Вы поняли основные отличия проведения процедуры

Помощь наркозависимым
К сожалению, многие наши соотечественники традиционно склонны к употреблению наркотиков. Как известно, это вызывает зависимость и приводит к наркомании. Мирится с таким положением дел нельзя ни в коем

Архитектурные макеты
Зачастую застройщикам или иным организациям требуется убедить заказчика или, опять же, другую аудиторию, в преимуществах своего предложения по застройке участка. Одно дело, если речь идет о зданиях производственного

Услуги фулфилмента
Результатом мудрой и дальновидной политики руководства нашей страны стало стремительное и чрезвычайно эффективное внедрение судьбоносных реформ во всех областях жизнедеятельности общества, неуклонный

Такелажные услуги
Такое понятие, как «такелаж», относительно недавно вошло в общий обиход, и означает оно различные грузоподъемные работы, для которых необходимо применение специальных знаний, навыков, а так же использование

Высокая печать
Это « гибридный» способ печати, используемый для нанесения изображений на неплоские изделия из искусственных материалов, например крышки и стаканы, а также для многокрасочной неполноцветной

Реклама

Chronic hepatitis B: how many live, treatment, symptoms

  1. general information
  2. Forms of chronic hepatitis B
  3. Causes of chronic hepatitis and risk factors
  4. Symptoms of the disease
  5. Features of the disease in children and pregnant women
  6. Diagnostics
  7. Disease treatment
  8. Medicines
  9. Diet for treating hepatitis
  10. Disease outcome
  11. Can a disease go away on its own?
  12. How many patients with hepatitis live?

According to statistics from the World Health Organization, chronic hepatitis B may soon become a threat to the life of the population in most developed countries. WHO data say that about 700 thousand people die every year on the planet, and not only hepatitis B, but also chronic hepatitis C is the cause of such mortality.

WHO data say that about 700 thousand people die every year on the planet, and not only hepatitis B, but also chronic hepatitis C is the cause of such mortality

general information

The causative agent is the hepatitis B virus, which contains the DNA code, which is sometimes referred to as HBV, HBV or HBV. A special feature of the virus is its resistance to external stimuli, chemicals, low and high temperatures, and exposure to acid. A healthy person is able to get a virus from a patient with any form of the disease: acute or chronic, or simply from the carrier of the virus. Infection occurs through the blood in wounds, is transmitted from mother to child during childbirth, through damaged mucous membranes. After the virus enters the body, it does not manifest itself immediately. This period of time from infection to the onset of the disease is called the incubation period, and for hepatitis B it lasts 30–90 days.

Forms of chronic hepatitis B

After the time of infection, the first symptoms appear. The disease lasts for about 2 months and ends with either a complete cure or the transition of the acute form of hepatitis to chronic, which is considered the most dangerous. The chronic form can go unnoticed by the body and the person, it does not affect the functioning of the internal organs, but most often the destruction of the liver continues to progress. There are several forms of chronic HBV virus that differ in the cause of the disease.

Forms of the virus Cause of occurrence of Alcohol Occurs on the basis of prolonged use of ethyl alcohol (more than 7 years) Autoimmune Occurs not only because of the HBV virus, but also of all other species, herpes, etc. drugs.

Causes of chronic hepatitis and risk factors

The main ways of transmission of hepatitis are reduced to one - through the blood. But there are other reasons for the development of chronic hepatitis B:

  • Sexually. Therefore, the risk group includes mainly those who lead a dysfunctional lifestyle.
  • Another method of transmission is through a non-sterile needle. Hepatitis B is a fairly common occurrence among drug addicts.
  • Transmission from mother to child at birth.
  • Common hygiene items with the patient.
  • Work related to patients with hepatitis.
  • Non-sterile tools in tattoo parlors, manicure rooms, hospitals.

The main risk factors for virus infection are:

  • HIV / AIDS disease;
  • hemodialysis;
  • frequent change of sexual partners;
  • homosexuality;
  • stay in a disadvantaged region where there is a high risk of infection (for example, at work or on a business trip).

Symptoms of the disease

Due to the long incubation period, the disease does not show any symptoms and therefore some do not even realize that they should be treated Due to the long incubation period, the disease does not show any symptoms and therefore some do not even realize that they should be treated. Symptoms of chronic hepatitis are initially minor:

  • fast fatiguability;
  • fever;
  • pain in the right hypochondrium (rarely);
  • stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea;
  • aching muscles and bones;

When the disease passes into the advanced stage, the patient develops jaundice, the weight decreases dramatically, the muscles atrophy. Urine becomes dark in color, coagulability of blood deteriorates, gums bleed, a depressive state appears, the patient loses interest in life, what is happening, intellectual abilities (thinking, memory, attention) worsen critically, sometimes even reaching coma. It is terrible that the first symptoms of the disease sometimes appear already at an advanced stage.

Special markers in the blood indicate the presence of hepatitis, so it is imperative that you pass a regular physical examination and pass a blood test.

Features of the disease in children and pregnant women

Such a formulation of the diagnosis as chronic viral hepatitis should not cause concern for women in the situation or those who want to become a mother. Only an acute form of hepatitis can provoke a miscarriage during pregnancy. When markers of chronic hepatitis are found in the blood of a pregnant woman, doctors can simply prescribe supportive drugs - hepatoprotectors and a woman can safely give birth. In the first 12 hours of life, the child will be vaccinated with a vaccine against hepatitis, and all subsequent ones will be done according to plan in the children's clinic.

The peculiarity of the course of the disease in children is that they only become infected from the mother and the outcome is one - a complete cure, but very rarely does the disease turn into a chronic stage. If a child suffered hepatitis in childhood, then antibodies and immunity to the disease are formed in his blood. In addition to transition to another stage, cirrhosis is also considered a complication of hepatitis. To avoid unpleasant consequences, you need to constantly undergo a routine examination at the pediatrician and be vaccinated, because only they can give 90% protection against the likelihood of getting sick - for 15 years.

Diagnostics

The degree of damage to the liver, the doctor determines with the help of ultrasound diagnostics.

If the ailments that the patient complains about cause a doubt to the doctor, then he will be prescribed a blood test to identify the markers of the disease to accurately determine the disease. After that, the patient will be assigned to a liver ultrasound to determine her condition and extent of damage. It is possible to conduct a biopsy to determine the degree of activity of the virus. The differential diagnosis of chronic hepatitis is necessary in order to distinguish it from other serious diseases of the liver and other body systems.

Disease treatment

Hepatitis is curable, but only by going to the doctor and observing his prescriptions. It is important to remember that hepatitis is not a sentence. In severe cases, the disease of patients treated in the day hospital in the infectious disease ward. The main goal of therapy is to stop the reproduction of the virus, then its reactivation will be almost impossible. In addition, the treatment is aimed at removing toxins from the body, restoring the affected organs and complications on other organs.

Medicines

Treatment of chronic hepatitis B is based on several groups of drugs:

  • Interferon preparations. Interferons are proteins secreted by the body when viruses enter it. Peginterferon alfa-2a is used in the treatment. It is administered in the form of injections by a patient with a good liver condition.
  • Necessarily the use of antiviral drugs - nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Often they are used if the previous was ineffective. This category includes such drugs: "Adenofir", "Lamivudin", "Tenofovir", "Entekavir", etc.

Diet for treating hepatitis

Diet number 5 will help speed up the process of recovery of the patient.

Proper nutrition for hepatitis is an important component of rapid recovery. Doctors insist that patients adhere to dietary table number 5. It is necessary to reduce the content of fat in the diet; dishes are cooked and baked, sometimes stewed; cold foods are prohibited; necessarily limit the amount of salt consumed. The diet will help you plan your diet correctly and make sure that the maximum amount of nutrients to the body accelerates recovery.

Meals should be divided into 4-5 per day, but there are small portions. Exclude from the diet of meat semi-finished products, that is, sausages, rolls, sausages, and replace them better than low-fat varieties of poultry - turkey, chicken. The same with fish - you can eat only low-fat varieties. Dairy products are allowed, but only low-fat. Greens should be included in the diet - it is an indispensable source of vitamins. Exclude is only green onions, radishes and garlic, because they increase the formation of bile (contraindicated in patients with ICD - urolithiasis). You need to use vitamins, they show a positive effect on the body and assist in the transfer of nutrients through the body.

Disease outcome

Is it possible to completely cure hepatitis?

About 50 percent of patients recover fully.

This is a question that worries every patient with hepatitis. Each case of the disease is individual, so it cannot be said for certain whether it is possible to cure it completely or not. It all depends on the form and stage of the disease. Chronic hepatitis B is cured completely only in 40-50% of cases. These are mainly patients who early discovered this disease and underwent intensive antiviral therapy. And if we take into account only the suspension of the reproduction of the virus with special preparations, then here the chance already increases significantly.

Can a disease go away on its own?

Yes, there are cases when chronic hepatitis B without drug treatment passes on its own and leaves no traces. But such cases occur with a frequency of 1/100 in patients with very strong immunity, which is able to suppress the hepatitis B virus itself. When the disease passes in an acute form and the body does not have enough strength to fight it on its own, then it turns into a chronic form of HBV.

How many patients with hepatitis live?

The chronic form of HB rarely leaves noticeable traces in the body in the form of serious complications, since the active phase of the disease is very slow. In contrast to the acute form, the risks of cirrhosis and cancer are negligible (5-10%). The probability of occurrence of complications in a patient to some extent depends on him: the use of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, non-compliance with the diet increases the chance of remission and complications.

Patients live with hepatitis for as long as normal healthy people.

But the following factors influence the favorable course of the disease. Firstly, a sedentary lifestyle and excess weight create an extra burden on the liver, which is already difficult to fulfill its functions. Secondly, cigarettes, alcohol and drugs strongly influence the development and outcome of the disease. Elderly and children are more prone to illness. To live a happy life despite the diagnosis, you just need to follow the instructions of the doctor and then it will turn out to conquer the disease and reduce the consequences.